Arab forces began launching sporadic raiding expeditions into Cyrenaica modern northeast Libya and beyond soon after their conquest of Egypt. Before I conclude I shall range over all the independent Muslim countries one by one and summarise their histories—each from their national point of view, starting from the extreme East. Viking attacks have affected all the peoples of the British Isles, but in England they have been overcome by the Anglo-Saxons under the kings of Wessex. This has been prohibited by Britain and most other European countries since the early 19th century, but remains very much alive in the hands of American and Portuguese slavers. India and South Asia history BC The history of ancient India is experiencing a dark age after the fall of the great Indus Valley civilization. The Arab-Israeli question has made it much harder for Muslim leaders to adopt pro-Western policies, and has given anti-Western terrorist organizations widespread support. His disciple Maulana Jalal-ud-Din Rumi wrote his Masnavi near about
Bishop Arculf , whose account of his pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the 7th century, De Locis Sanctis , written down by the monk Adamnan, described reasonably pleasant living conditions of Christians in Palestine in the first period of Muslim rule. They expanded into Spain. By a similar process, Seljuk military leaders seized power in Baghdad in At one time the Berbers had been Christians but they recently converted in large numbers to Islam after the Arab conquest of North Africa. Some of the Middle Eastern states, in particular the monarchies of the Arabian peninsula and Gulf region, have continued to maintain strong links with the West — links which are increasingly lucrative to them due the the rising Western demand for their oil.
The nodes of this trading system are a growing number of small coastal sultanates, which have been established here. Elsewhere, farming societies are spreading through the Amazon basin. Medina's victories led allied tribes to attack the non-aligned to compensate for their own losses. In Africa the first, albeit primitive, systematic collections appeared. The Roman empire had traditionally dominated the Mediterranean and the Black Sea with major naval bases at Constantinople, Acre, Alexandria and Carthage.
Middle East history AD Arab-Israeli hostility has dominated Middle Eastern politics. Read full article on Ancient European History. Castile and Leon were united in AD, and then the Kingdom of Aragon was added by the dynastic union of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in Guiscard allows to the inhabitants the right to practice their religion and a certain autonomy. John is founded in Italy. Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism Criticism Post-Islamism Islamophobia Incidents Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran and miracles Qutbism Symbolism.